Difference Between Data Definition Language (DDL) and Data Manipulation Language (DML)

When working with Structured Query Language (SQL), Data Definition Language (DDL) and Data Manipulation Language (DML) are two subcategories of SQL that have two distinct purposes.

DDL is used to change the structure of the database. It’s a set of commands used to create, modify, delete data structure but not data (Lithmee, 2017). Think of it as setting the rules for defining how your data is going to be stored. For example, a database designer can use DDL to create database objects (tables, indexes, views etc.) and define the access rights to those objects (Coronel, Morris, & Rob, 2010). Here are some examples of DDL commands:

DML is used to manage the data in the database. It’s a set of commands used to add, remove, modify or retrieve data (Lithmee, 2017). Think of it as once we have defined how data is stored (DDL), DML is how we interact with the data. For example, a database user can use DML to insert, delete, update, and retrieve data inside of a database (Coronel, Morris, & Rob, 2010).

The easy way to remember the difference between the two is that if it affects your scheme and the database structure it is DDL. If modifies your content (the rows) then it is DML.


Lithmee. (2017, December 30). Difference between DDL and DML. Retrieved from https://www.differencebetween.com/difference-between-ddl-and-vs-dml/

Coronel, C., Morris, S., & Rob, P. (2010). Database systems: design, implementation, and management. (9th ed.). Boston: Cengage Learning, Inc.

Why You Should Practice Confident Body Language

Body language can communicate information that is beyond what is being said (semantics, the meaning of words) and heard (auditory input), information such as context. According to this discussion’s background video, Your Body May Shape Who You Are by Amy Cuddy (2012),  she suggests that even if you don’t feel confident, practicing confident body language can increase your self-esteem and make you feel better about yourself. Some of the good body languages you can practice to make yourself more confident are (Cunic, 2018): 

  • Eye contact- having direct eye with another contact denotes interest and can be a sign of truthfulness.
  • Leaning forward– when someone leans forward, it may indicate attention and interest, try this when you are listening to someone. 
  • Standing or sitting straight– this occupies more space than slouching and taking up more space is a sign of power. You can practice this while waiting in line or while sitting down doing homework. 
  • Chin up– walking and talking with your chin up is a sign of confidence as your face is more exposed. One can easily practice this by avoiding looking at the ground. 

Another good way to practice confident body language is to be aware of body language that may convey uncertainty.  These are some of the body languages you should be aware of and avoid:

  • Fidgeting- this is a sign of nervousness and lack of power (Cain, 2018). 
  • Defensive possess- such as crossing your arms, hiding your hands, or holding objects too close to the body convey uncertainty, and mistrust (Cass, 2017). 
  • Forgetting to smile– one way to demonstrate confidence, openness, warmth, and energy is to smile, forgetting to do so demonstrates the exact opposite (Cain, 2018). 

Body language adds another dimension to communication as it informs listeners underlying messages that may not be communicated from the words spoken and heard. By practicing confident body language you can prime yourself to be confident or be perceived as confident. You should also be aware and avoid the body language that conveys uncertainty, hostility, or untrustworthiness. By practicing good body language and avoiding the bad ones, you’ve made a conscious decision to be confident.   


Cain, A. (2018, April 04). 11 horrible body language mistakes that are hard to quit but you’ll be glad you did. Retrieved from http://www.businessinsider.com/bad-body-language-habits-2017-12 (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.

Cass, W. (2017). Influence: How to raise your profile, manage your reputation, and get noticed. West Sussex, United Kingdom. John Wiley & Sons Ltd. 

Cuddy, A. (2012, June). Your body language may shape who you are. [Video file]. Retrieved from http://www.ted.com/talks/amy_cuddy_your_body_language_shapes_who_you_are

Cunic, A. (2018, January 08). 10 ways to have more confident body language: How to improve your self-esteem Retrieved from https://www.verywellmind.com/ten-ways-to-have-more-confident-body-language-3024855 (Links to an external site.)

How to answer, “Tell me about yourself?”

When answering this question, my strategy is to visualize my resume. I start from the top with my name, what I do, and for me, since I am heavily educated and my industry is in education, I start with my education, followed by professional experience, then my interest, and lastly what I am looking for.

If you’ve noticed, there is a specific formula that I’m following:  start with the present, then the past, and then end it with the future in mind (Minshew, n.d.).

Tell me about yourself.

“I’m Dru Macasieb, I am a college business instructor. I consider myself well educated as  I have a Master’s in Organizational Leadership, a Masters in Business Administration, and a Bachelor’s in Liberal Studies with an emphasis in Linguistics. Professionally, I have been in post-secondary education for 7 years, taking on roles such as instructor to associate dean.  I’ve worked for both for-profit and non-profit private sectors and know the typical standards within the industry. Prior to education, I worked in retail management at the district manager level. Prior to that, I was in the U.S. Army serving 4 years with one year deployed to Afghanistan. Beyond my academic and professional background, my interest includes reading, specifically non-fiction books mostly about self-improvement and psychology and I am also fascinated with emerging technology such as robotics and emotional intelligence. I’m here because I want to share my knowledge and experience with an organization that is dedicated to helping others.”

What are some of your best practices for answering the question, “Tell me about yourself?” Leave them in the comments below.



Minshew, K (n.d.). A simple formula for answering the “Tell me about yourself.” The Muse. Retrieved from https://www.themuse.com/advice/a-simple-formula-for-answering-tell-me-about-yourself


What is the purpose of higher education?

(Free-Writing Actvitiy)

The purpose of higher education is to create a systematic way of dividing society’s scarce resources; specifically jobs and social status. Hundreds of years ago people did not need to go to school. They were fine with growing up and working. Then someone decided that education was important and implemented making children go to school. But even then, higher education did not exist or was not popular. Kids would go to school, graduate and find a job. Nowadays people cannot find a job unless they have an education. Well, not a good paying job at least. It has been set in the minds of Americans that the thing to do after graduating high school is to go to college.  We have brainwashed our children to think that without higher education, you cannot become rich, smart, contributor to society. Going to college is not an option it something you just do. We continue to re-enforce the importance of college in movies, commercials, the radio, music, even in social media. Facebook was founded in the roots of its college-based invitation 


For this activity, I chose to do the free-writing method of prewriting. This activity was not hard to do as I let my thoughts run wild and had my fingers do the typing without thinking about if the grammar or structure was correct. This activity was easy because it let me think without judging my thoughts (if that makes any sense). After looking at what I wrote during my free-writing activity, I have an idea as to why I am pursuing an education.  

I am pursuing a higher education because for some reason, I believe it is the stage before finding one’s career. Even if someone did not pursue a higher education after high school, they will end up going to college because this is the natural stage before having a career. Higher education is where one learns about one’s self and the world. It is a time of one’s life where self-discovery is happening along with mental and personal growth. Although society has brainwashed us to think that without higher education we cannot be successful (my own personal opinion), it is important to understand that education is not a given, it is a conscious choice that someone makes, a path that someone chooses, in order to pursue a better life.

Cheatin’ On me

By Dru Macasieb

I know you are
cheatin’ on me…
It is not that
I’m going crazy.
I know it is true,
so face reallity…

Honey, sugar, my sweet love,
You got to give it up
Cause I know the true 411.
You killin’ me-
shootin’ me with a gun…

So why don’t you just give it up?
Come and tell me what’s,
Just give it to me striaght and clear.
You ain’t got nothin’ to fear.
Except that I might not stay,
Cause by then I’ll be on my way…

So baby, angel, my fine rose,
tell me,
What no one knows.
Tell me who he is
So I can see
Where I went wrong.
Then I’ll replay, restart,
Another song…

But now,
For you,
it is too late.
Got another
in my mind
for a date.

So Mama, Candy, love of my life,
you got your chance,
and I am getting mine.
So now I hope
I won’t waste your time…

Bye-bye cheater.
You can’t cheat on me anymore.
Taking my love out the door.

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